Sleep Related Questionnaires


Name of questionnaire Self Efficacy in Sleep apnea (SEMSA)
Type of questionnaire-description,age Disease-specific measure of pretreatment expectancies regarding OSA and CPAP treatment in adults. Designed to assess adherence-related cognitions.
Number of items 26-item
Number of domains & categories 3 subscales 
Name of categories/domains   Risk perception, outcome expectancies, and treatment self-efficacy
Scaling of items 1 to 4: Higher scores indicate greater perceived self-efficacy, greater perceived response efficacy, and higher perceived susceptibility
Scoring available: with permission or free With permission from developer
Scoring test-retest reliability Yes, r=0.68 for Perceived Risk; 0.77 for Outcome Expectancies; and 0.71 for Treatment Self-Efficacy
Scoring Internal consistency Yes, Cronbach alpha for total score= 0.92
Validity Yes, Content validity by a panel of judges
Available forms (short and/or long etc.) SEMSA (long form) and SEMSA-15 (short form in French)
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Yes, Chinese, French, Spanish
Developer name Terri Weaver, PhD, RN, FAAN, et al
Developer contact information

University of Illinois at Chicago
845 S. Damen Ave., M/C 802
Rm 118
Chicago, IL 60612

Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Use with permission from developer
Limitations Long questionnaire; a shorter version, SEMSA-15 in French
Link to the questionnaire (if available) Not available
Other comments Has strong psychometric properties and has the potential for identifying patient perceptions that may indicate those most likely to not adhere to treatment
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Clinic-based patients with OSA
References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions) 1. Weaver TE, Maislin G, Dinges DF, Younger J, Cantor C, McCloskey S, Pack AI. Self-efficacy in sleep apnea: instrument development and patient perceptions of obstructive sleep apnea risk, treatment benefit, and volition to use continuous positive airway pressure. Sleep. 2003 Sep;26(6):727-32. doi:10.1093/sleep/26.6.727. PMID: 14572127.

2. Lai AY, Fong DY, Lam JC, Weaver TE, Ip MS. Linguistic and psychometric validation of the Chinese version of the self-efficacy measures for sleep apnea questionnaire. Sleep Med. 2013 Nov;14(11):1192-8. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.04.023.

3.  Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Coste O, Bioulac S, Guichard K, Monteyrol PJ, Ghorayeb I, Weaver TE, Weibel S, Philip P. A French update on the Self-Efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea (SEMSA) to assess continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use. Sleep Breath. 2019 Mar;23(1):217-226. doi: 10.1007/s11325-018-1686-7.

4.  Lucile D, Bioulac S, Coste O, Kelly G, Monteyrol P, Ghorayeb I, Philip P, Micoulaud Franchi JA. Proposition of a Shortened Version of the Self-efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea (SEMSA-15): Psychometric Validation and Cut-Off Score for CPAP Adherence. Sleep and Vigilance 2020 June; 4(1).


5.  Galeano, EMM. Validez y confiabilidad del instrumento SEMSA “Medición de la autoeficacia percibida en apnea del sueño” (Perceived self-efficacy measure for sleep apnea). Versión en español. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Enfermería. Bogotá, Colombia. 2014.
Updated by Bilgay Izci Balserak, Ms PhD
The last date of update May 2021