Sleep Related Questionnaires

Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

Name of questionnaire Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
Type of Questionnaire-description, age/population Self-rated questionnaire that assesses adult patients’ sleep quality and disturbances over one month
Number of items 19 self-reported items + 5 additional questions for bed partner
Number of domains & categories 7 domains
Name of categories/domains   Subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction
Scaling of items 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0-3; some open-ended questions that can be converted to scaled scores
Scoring available: with permission or free available, with permission
Scoring test-retest reliability

Yes, correlation coefficient= 0.85

(Paired t tests and Pearson product-moment correlations)
Scoring Internal consistency Yes, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83

Sensitivity 89.6% and Specificity 86.5%. (original publication)

Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Afrikaans, Arabic, Bulgarian, Cebuano, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Filipino, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Mandarin, Marathi, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian, Zulu
Developer name Daniel J.Buysse, M.D.
Developer contact information for permission

UPMC Professor of Sleep Medicine
Professor of Psychiatry and Clinical and Translational Science
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
3811 O’Hara St
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
T: (412) 246-6413

Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available

Reprint allowed without charge only for non-commercial research and educational purposes.

For changes or modifications to the form or for commercially sponsored research: contact developer and .

Office of Technology Management at University of Pittsburgh 412-648-2206 (copyright owner: University of Pittsburgh)


Score of >5 to differentiate between “poor” sleepers (depressed patients) and “good” sleepers (healthy subjects). may be different in other  populations (e.g. patients with sleep disorders, college students etc).

Questionable validity when compared to objective measures including PSG(Polysomnography), actigraphy etc.

Link to the questionnaire (if available)

Other comments

Used in both clinical and non-clinical populations groups successfully

Recent studies included exploratory factor analyses leading to two factor and three factor models with “sleep quality”, “sleep efficiency” and “daytime disturbance” as constructs instead of a single global score.

Patient populations in whom questionnaire has been validated Validated in elderly, PTSD, primary Insomnia, Depression, cancer, TBI, COPD, IPF, OSA, Pregnancy, fibromyalgia (Spanish version).
References (including original publication)
  1. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989 May;28(2):193-213.
  2. Doi Y, Minowa M, Uchiyama M, Okawa M, Kim K, Shibui K, Kamei Y. Psychometric assessment of subjective sleep quality using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) in psychiatric disordered and control subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2000 Dec 27;97(2-3):165-72.
  3. Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Broocks A, Riemann D, Hohagen F. Test retest reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. in primary insomnia. J Psychosom Res. 2002;53:737-40.
  4. Grandner MA, Kripke DF, Yoon IY, Youngstedt SD. Criterion validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: Investigation in a non-clinical sample. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2006 Jun;4(2):129-139.
  5. Spira AP, Beaudreau SA, Stone KL, Kezirian EK, Lui LY, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Ensrud K, Stewart A, for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012; 67(4):433-9.
  6. Dietch JR, Taylor DJ, Sethi K, Kelly K, Bramoweth AD, Roane BM. Psychometric Evaluation of the PSQI in U.S. College Students. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 Aug 15;12(8):1121-9.
  7. Mollayeva T, Thurairajah P, Burton K, Mollayeva S, Shapiro CM, Colantonio A. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2016 Feb;25:52-73.
  8. Hayashino Y, Yamazaki S, Takegami M, Nakayama T, Sokejima S, Fukuhara S. Association between number of comorbid conditions, depression, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: results from a population-based survey.  Sleep Med 2010 Apr;11(4):366-71.
  9. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Hoch CC, Yeager AL, Kupfer DJ. Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep 1991 Aug;14(4):331-8.
  10. Dunleavy G, Bajpai R, Tonon AC, Chua AP, Cheung KL, Soh CK, Christopoulos G, Vries H, Car J. Examining the Factor Structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a Multi-Ethnic Working Population in Singapore. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 20;16(23):4590.
  11. Fabbri M, Beracci A, Martoni M, Meneo D, Tonetti L, Natale V. Measuring Subjective Sleep Quality: A Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 26;18(3):1082.
Updated by Ashesha Mechineni, MD
Last update November 2022