Sleep Related Questionnaires

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Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)

Name of questionnaire Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS)
Type of original questionnaire-description, age/population Self-reported, designed to assess the relationship between daytime sleepiness and school related outcomes in 11-15 years old students; additional validation in 5 to 17 years old
Number of items 8 questions for sleep-related behavior
Number of domains & categories 1
Name of categories/domains Daytime sleepiness
Scaling of items 5 points Likert scale (0-4) for 8 questions concerning to sleepiness. Higher scores on PDSS were associated with reduced total sleep time, poorer school achievement, poorer anger control, and frequent illness.
Scoring available: with permission or free Information not available.
Scoring test-retest reliability Yes4,6
Scoring internal consistency Yes (Chronbach’s alpha=0.8)
Validity Not validated against other tools eg MSLT, or other sleep related questionnaires but correlated with total sleep time.
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Spanish2, Chinese4, Korean5, Brazilian Portugese6, Turkish7, Russian8, Japanese9
Developer name Christopher Drake, PhD
Developer contact information Christopher L. Drake, PhD, Sleep Disorders and Research Center, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd., CFP3, Detroit, MI 48202; Tel: 313-916-4455;
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Contact author
Limitations Original study was in a non-multicultural middle-upper class white population but now has been validated in multiple patient populations. No time reference is included in the instructions. Some of the individual PDSS items actually contain 2 separate behaviors (e.g., fall asleep or get drowsy), which may, in fact, occur at very different rates and thereby create difficulties for some children to complete.
Link to the questionnaire (if available) Appendix of the reference given below1
Other comments Very easy to administer; sleepiness predicted poor academic performance, mood, and illness. It has been utilized in a variety of clinical samples, eg obesity; has good psychometric properties and deemed a “well-established” measure19
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Middle school age children1, children with epilepsy3, children with narcolepsy and OSAS4, children with ADHD14, children with migraines16, children with obesity17, children with Asperger Syndrome18
References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)

1.    Drake C, Nickel C, Burduvali E, Roth T, Jefferson C, Pietro B. The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children. Sleep 2003. Jun 15;26(4):455-8

2.    Perez-Chada D, Perez-Lloret S, Videla AJ, Cardinali D, Bergna MA, Fernández-Acquier M, et al.  Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS).  Sleep. 2007 Dec;30(12);1698-703.

3.    Maganti R, Hausman N, Koehn M, Sandok E, Glurich I, Mukesh BN.  Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep complaints among children with epilepsy.  Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Feb;8(1):272-7. Epub 2005 Dec 13.

4.    Yang CM, Huang YS, Song YC. Clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010 April;64(2):134-40.

5.    Rhie S, Lee S, Chae KY.  Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale. Korean J Pediatr. 2011 Jan;54(1):29-35.

6.    Felden EP, Carniel JK, Andrade RD, Pelegrini A, Anacleto TS, Louzada FM.  Translation and validation of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) into Brazilian Portuguese. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2016 Mar-Apr;92(2):168-73.

7.    Bektas M, Bektas I, Ayar D, Selekoglu Y, Ayar U, Kudubes AA, et al. Psychometric properties of Turkish version of Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-T). Asian Nurs Res (Korean SocNurs Sci). 2016 Mar;10(1):62-7.

8.    Randler C, Kolomeichuk SN, Morozov AV, Petrashova DA, Pozharskaya VV, Martynova AA, Korostovtseva LS, Bochkarev MV, Sviryaev, YV, Polouektov MG, Drake C. Psycometric properties of the Russian version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Heliyon Vol 5, July 2019.e02134

9.    Komoda Y, Breugelmans R, Frake CL, Nakajima S, Tamura N, Tanaka H, Inoue S, Inoue Y. Social jetlag affects subjective daytime sleepiness in school-aged children and adolescents: a study using the Japanese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-J). Chronobiol. Int., 33 (10) (2016), pp. 1311-1319.

10.  Stavinoha RC, Kline AD, Levy HP, Kimball A, Mettel TL, Ishman SL. Characterization of sleep disturbance in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Febl75(2):215-8.

11.  Ishman SL, Smith DF, Benke JR, Nguyen MT, Lin SY. The prevalence of sleepiness and the risk of sleep-disordered breathing in children with positive allergy test. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2012 March-Apr;2(2):139-43.

12.  Tan E, Healey D, Gray AR, Galland BC. Sleep hygiene intervention for youth aged 10 to 18 years with problematic sleep: a before-after pilot study. BMC Pediatr. 2012 Dec 7;12:189.

13.  Vlahandonis A, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Walter LM, Horne RS. A four year follow-up of sleep and respiratory measures in elementary school-aged children with sleep disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2013 May;14(5):440-8.

14.  Langberg JM, Dvorsky MR, Marshall S, Evans SW. Clinical implications of daytime sleepiness for the academic performance of middle school-aged adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5)542-8.

15.  Perez-Lloret S, Videla AJ, Richaudeau A, Vigo D, Rossi M, Cardinali DP, Perez-Chada D. A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: an exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 May 15;9(5)469-73.

16.  Esposito M, Roccella M, Parisi L, Gallai B, Carotenuto M. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:289-94.

17.  Beebe DW, Lewin D, Zeller M, McCabe M, MacLeod K, Daniels SR, Amin R. Sleep in overweight adolescents: shorter sleep, poorer sleep quality, sleepiness, and sleep-disordered breathing. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007 Jan-Feb;32(1):69-79.

18.  Bruni O, Ferri R, Vittori E, Novelli L, Vignati M, Porfirio MC, et al. Sleep architecture and NREM alterations in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Sleep. 2007 Nov;30(11):1577-85.

19.  Lewandowski AS, Toliver-Sokol M, Palermo TM. Evidence-based review of subjective pediatric sleep measures.  J Pediatr Psychol. 2011 Aug;36(7):780-93.

Updated by

Marlene Typaldos, MD

The last date of update December, 2020