Sleep Related Questionnaires

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Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ)

Name of questionnaire Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ)
Type of questionnaire-description,age Self-report questionnaire

Measures day time sleepiness in ages 11-17 years of age.  Can be used clinical (in patients with OSA) and nonclinical (healthy adolescents)

Number of items 16 questions
Number of domains & categories 2
Name of categories/domains Degree of sleepiness – 11 questions (sleep in school, sleep in evening, sleep in transport) 
Alertness in school – 5 questions
Scaling of items 1 to 5 (Likert-type responses)
1 - never
2 - rarely
3 – sometimes
4 – often
5 – almost every day

Items involving alertness or feeling “wide awake” were reverse coded before summing.
Scoring available: with permission or free No scale; Score ranges between 16-80.  Higher scores would indicate greater sleepiness.  Total scores on the CASQ were negatively correlated with objective measure of sleep duration.
Scoring test-retest reliability Not reported
Scoring internal consistency Yes (Cronbach's α = 0.89)
Validity Construct validity: results correlated well with 2 other well established sleep questionnaires - School Sleep Habits Survey and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale. Weakly associated with PSG findings
Language English
Available forms (short and/or long etc.) Long
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Portuguese, Persian6
Developer name James C. Spilsbury, PhD, MPH
Developer contact information James C. Spilsbury, PhD, MPH
Center for Clinical Investigation
Dept. of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
Case School of Medicine
Iris S. & Bert L. Wolstein Building
2103 Cornell Rd., Room 6127
Cleveland, OH 44106-7291
phone: (216) 368-7559
fax: (216) 368-0207
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Freely available (appendix to the reference given below1).  Contact author prior to use.
Limitations Enrollment issues may have led to a non-representative range of normal sleep behavior. No objective measures of sleepiness utilized (e.g. MSLT).
Link to the questionnaire (if available) Appendix of the reference given below1
Other comments Very easy to administer, may be used in conjunction with objective testing of pediatric sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness. 
CASQ scores were significantly correlated with age, sleep debt and sleep duration. 
Offers a visual aspect to answer choices.
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Middle school and high school age children1, children with sleep disordered breathing1, children with asthma2
References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)
  1. Spilsbury JC, Drotar D, Rosen CL, Redline S. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire: A New Measure to Assess Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med 2007; 3(6):603-612.
  2. Li Z, Huang IC, Thompson L, Tuli S, Huang SW, DeWalt D, Revicki D, et al. The relationships between asthma control, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life among children with asthma: a path analysis.  Sleep Med. 2013 Jul;14(7):641-7.
  3. De Souza Vilela T, Bittencourt LR, Tufik S, Moreira GA. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents.  J Pediatr (Rio J). 2016 Mar-Apr;92(2):149-55.
  4. John B, Bellipady SS, Bhat SU. Sleep promotion program for improving sleep behaviors in adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study. Scientifica (Cairo). 2016;2016;8013431. Epub 2016 Mar 20.
  5. Lewandowski AS, Toliver-Sokol M, Palermo TM. Evidence-based review of subjective pediatric sleep measures. J Pediatr Psychol. 2011 Aug;36(7):780-93.
  6. Aghajani, M., Hajijafari, M., Akbari, H. et al. Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ): a translation and validation study of the Persian version. Sleep Biol. Rhythms 18, 209–215 (2020).
Updated by Sonal Malhotra, MD, MPH
The last date of update December, 2020