Ultrasound in the ICU

ATS Seminars - Intensive Care Ultrasound:

A series of six articles with accompanying images and video clips illustrating the most common applications of intensive care ultrasound.

Thoracic Ultrasound:

Wernecke K, Galanski M, Peters PE, et al. Pneumothorax: Evaluation by ultrasound — Preliminary results. J Thorac Imaging. 1987; 2:76–8.  This landmark study is the first description of using ultrasound to diagnose pneumothorax.  They found respiratory excursions of the pleura in 20 healthy patients but none in 6 patients with pneumothorax, thus describing the "sliding sign" that is now a key component of bedside ultrasound.
PMID: 3298684

DA Lichtenstein, GA Mezièere. Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure: the BLUE protocol. Chest 2008; 134:117–125. This observational study of 301 consecutive ICU patients compared a focused lung ultrasound protocol (BLUE) with the discharge diagnosis based on the medical record. They describe mostly favorable sensitivity and specificity, particularly for pulmonary edema (SN 97%, SP 95%), and pneumothorax (SN 88%, 100%). US was performed by highly experienced providers, and the protocol requires familiarity with BLUE-specific nomenclature, raising concerns about generalizability to other settings. The authors emphasize that US can be used rapidly at the bedside and is useful not in isolation but as an adjunct to current diagnostic strategies.
PMID: 18403664
Free Full Text

Mojoli F, Bouhemad B, Mongodi S, et al. Lung ultrasound for critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019; 199:701-714. Reviews basic lung ultrasound signs and their applications in critical care, including detection and management of pneumothorax, ventilator associated pneumonia, atelectasis, and pleural effusions.
PMID: 30372119
Free Full Text

Santana PV, Cardenas LZ, de Albuquerque ALP et al. Diaphragmatic ultrasound: a review of its methodological aspects and clinical uses.  J Bras Pneumol. 2020; 46: e2020064. This is a review of the evidence supporting ultrasound assessment of diaphragmatic function, the technique, and the potential clinical applications.
PMID: 33237154
Free Full Text