Sleep Related Questionnaires

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Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index SAQLI

Name of questionnaire Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index SAQLI
Type of questionnaire-description,age/population Disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire for adults with sleep apnea; designed to measure outcome of sleep apnea treatment
Number of items 84
Number of domains & categories 5: Four functional domains plus a fifth domain assessing the negative impacts of therapeutic intervention. Additional final section used to weigh responses to the 5 domains.
Name of categories/domains  

(A) Daily functioning (11 items),
(B) Social interactions (13 items),
(C) Emotional functioning (11 items)(D) Symptoms (21 items; select 5 symptoms)
(E) Treatment-related symptoms (26 items; select 5 symptoms)
(F) Impact (2 items)

Scaling of items

Domains A-D: 7-point Likert scale, sum divided by total number of questions answered
Domain E: 7-point Likert scale, mean divided by 5
Domains A-D and E are further modified by a weighting score, derived from responses to Section F (10-point Likert scale)

Scoring available: with permission or free With permission from Dr. Felmons
Scoring test-retest reliability Yes Reliability coefficient 0.92 within 2 weeks [1]
Scoring Internal consistency Yes Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88 - 0.92 [1]

Yes, correlations between SAQLI and SF-36 vitality domain: content validity, face validity and construct validity [1]

Available forms (short and/or long etc.) N/A
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Chinese [3], French [4], Japanese [5], Korean [6], Malay [7], Persian [8], Portuguese [9], Spanish [10]
Developer name W. Ward Flemons, MD and Marlene A Reimer, RN, PhD.
Developer contact information

W.W. Flemons, MD,  University of  Calgary, Room 4C70, Health Research Innovation Centre, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6  Tel: (403) 220-8810 ; Email:

Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Permission required
Limitations Designed for administration by trained interviewer; complex scoring algorithm 
Link to the questionnaire (if available)
Other comments Respondents answers based on their experience in past 4 weeks
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated

CPAP trials in patients with OSA. [13,16].  No specific validations in subgroups such as pregnancy, different racial/ethnicity groups.

References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)
  1.  Flemons, W.W.; Reimer, M.A. Development of a disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire for sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998, 158, 494-503, doi:10.1164/ajrccm.158.2.9712036.

  2. Flemons, W.W.; Reimer, M.A. Measurement properties of the calgary sleep apnea quality of life index. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002, 165, 159-164, doi:10.1164/ajrccm.165.2.2010008.

  3. Mok, W.Y.; Lam, C.L.; Lam, B.; Cheung, M.T.; Yam, L.; Ip, M.S. A Chinese version of the Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index was evaluated for reliability, validity, and responsiveness. J Clin Epidemiol 2004, 57, 470-478, doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.09.018.

  4. Lacasse, Y.; Godbout, C.; Series, F. Independent validation of the Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index. Thorax 2002, 57, 483-488, doi:10.1136/thorax.57.6.483.

  5. Kobayashi, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Suwa, H.; Matsushima, E. The validity and usefulness of the Japanese version of the Calgary sleep apnea quality of life index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Intern Med 2013, 52, 309-315, doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.52.8873.

  6. Jang, H.U.; Park, K.S.; Cheon, S.M.; Lee, H.W.; Kim, S.W.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, J.S. Development of the korean version of the sleep apnea quality of life index. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2014, 7, 24-29, doi:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.1.24.

  7. Saddki, N.; Mohamad, H.; Mohd Yusof, N.I.; Mohamad, D.; Mokhtar, N.; Wan Bakar, W.Z. Validity and reliability of the Malay version of Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index--preliminary results. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2013, 11, 100, doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-100.

  8. Rahavi-Ezabadi, S.; Amali, A.; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, K.; Montazeri, A.; Nedjat, S. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) in Persian-speaking patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath 2016, 20, 523-528, doi:10.1007/s11325-015-1228-5.

  9. Sampaio, R.S.; Pereira, M.G.; Winck, J.C. [Adaptation of the sleep apnea quality of life index (SAQLI) to Portuguese obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients]. Rev Port Pneumol 2012, 18, 166-174, doi:10.1016/j.rppneu.2012.02.009.

  10. Catalan, P.; Martinez, A.; Herrejon, A.; Martinez-Garcia, M.A.; Soler-Cataluna, J.J.; Roman-Sanchez, P.; Pinel, J.; Blanquer, R. Internal consistency and validity of the Spanish version of the quality of life questionnaire specific for obstructive sleep apnea: sleep apnea quality of life index. Arch Bronconeumol 2012, 48, 431-442, doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2012.05.004.

  11. Venkatnarayan, K.; Devaraj, U.; Veluthat, C.; Louis, V.; Ramachandran, P.; D'Souza, G.; Krishnaswamy, U.M. The effect of CPAP therapy on excessive daytime sleepiness and quality of life in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea: an AB design study. Sleep Breath 2021, 25, 1351-1357, doi:10.1007/s11325-020-02237-4.

  12. Billings, M.E.; Rosen, C.L.; Auckley, D.; Benca, R.; Foldvary-Schaefer, N.; Iber, C.; Zee, P.C.; Redline, S.; Kapur, V.K. Psychometric performance and responsiveness of the functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire and sleep apnea quality of life instrument in a randomized trial: the HomePAP study. Sleep 2014, 37, 2017-2024, doi:10.5665/sleep.4262.

  13. Silva, G.E.; Goodwin, J.L.; Vana, K.D.; Quan, S.F. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Quality of Life: Comparison of the SAQLI, FOSQ, and SF-36 Questionnaires. Southwest J Pulm Crit Care 2016, 13, 137-149, doi:10.13175/swjpcc082-16.

Updated by Ikuyo Imayama, MD
The last date of update October 2022