Sleep Related Questionnaires

Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ)

Name of questionnaire Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ)
Type of original questionnaire-description, age/population

Self-rated scale to assess individual phase of entrainment on work and work-free days, developed in ages 6 to > 65 years; tool to collect primary sleep times, such as bed- and rise-times, plus the clock time of becoming fully awake as well as sleep latency and inertia, in addition to other time points and rate themselves as one of the seven chronotypes.

The MCTQ uses the midpoint between sleep on- and offset on free days (mid-sleep on free days, MSF) to assess chronotype.

Number of items 17
Number of domains & categories 4
Name of categories/domains   work schedule, work day sleep schedule, free day sleep schedule, self-assessment of chronotype.
Scaling of items

Addresses questions about: bedtime, time spent in bed awake before deciding to turn off the lights, how long it takes to fall asleep, wake up time, get up time on work and work-free days.

0-6 on some of the items in the original questionnaire (extreme early to extreme late chronotype).

Scoring available: with permission or free See website.
Scoring test-retest reliability Not available
Scoring Internal consistency Not available
Validity Yes, sleep logs; objective measures of activity and rest (sleep-logs and actimetry), and physiological parameters (DLMO, cortisol); correlates with Horne-Ostberg’s Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ).  Association with wrist actigraphy.
Available forms (short and/or long etc.) MCTQ, MCTQshift, short form: µMCTQ
Language German 
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages)

English, Dutch, French, Brazilian, Spanish, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Turkish, Persian

Contact author for details.

Developer(s) name Dr Till Roenneberg, et al.
Developer contact information for permission

Institut für Medizinische Psychologie
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Goethestr. 31
80336 München

Phone: +4989218075650

Fax: 0049-(0)89-2180-75616

Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Use with permission
Limitations Test-retest reliability not published; MCTQ calculations rely on structured work schedules.
Link to the questionnaire (if available)
Other comments

Shift workers were excluded in MCTQ; completed between March and June in Germany and Switzerland.

Separate MCTQShift developed for shift workers.

Questionnaire adapted for children available online at developer’s website.

Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Korean adults, shift workers, Japanese adults, patients with insomnia symptoms.
References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)
  1. Roenneberg T, Wirz-Justice A, Merrow M. Life between clocks: daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. J Biol Rhythms. 2003 Feb;18(1):80-90.
  2. Juda MVetter CRoenneberg T.  The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for Shift-Workers (MCTQShift).  J Biol Rhythms.2013 Apr;28(2):130-40.
  3. Ghotbi N,  Pilz LK, Winnebeck E, Vetter C, Zerbini G, Lenssen D, Frighetto G, Salamanca M, Costa R, Montagnese S, et al. The MCTQ—An ultra-short version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire in press.
  4. Suh SKim SHRyu HChoi SJJoo EY.   Validation of the Korean Munich Chronotype Questionnaire.  Sleep Breath.2018 Sep;22(3):773-779.
  5. Kitamura SHida AAritake SHiguchi SEnomoto MKato MVetter CRoenneberg TMishima K.  Validity of the Japanese version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. Chronobiol Int.2014 Aug;31(7):845-50
  6. Suh S, Ryu H, Kim S, Choi S, Joo EY.  Using Mid-Sleep Time to Determine Chronotype in Young Adults with Insomnia-Related Symptoms.  Sleep Med Res 2017; 8(2): 107-111.
  7. Zavada A, Gordijn MC, Beersma DG, Daan S, Roenneberg T.Comparison of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire with the Horne-Ostberg's Morningness-Eveningness Score. Chronobiol Int. 2005;22(2):267-78.
  8. Santisteban JA, Brown TG, Gruber R. Association between the Munich chronotype questionnaire and
    wrist actigraphy. Sleep Disord. 2018, 2018, 5646848.
  9. Kantermann T, Sung H, Burgess HJ.  Comparing the morningness-eveningness questionnaire and Munich
    chronotype questionnaire to the dim light melatonin onset. J. Biol. Rhythms 2015, 30, 449–453.
  10. Roenneberg TPilz LKZerbini GWinnebeck EC. Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review. Biology (Basel).2019 Jul 12;8(3). pii: E54.
  11. Erdoğan Ş, Üçpunar HK, Tavat BC. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2022 Winter;33(4):274-279.
  12. Reis C, Madeira SG, Lopes LV, Paiva T, Roenneberg T. Validation of the Portuguese Variant of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQPT). Front Physiol. 2020 Jul 14;11:795.
  13. Habers GEA, van der Helm-van Mil AHM, Veldhuijzen DS, Allaart CF, et al. Earlier chronotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Jun;40(6):2185-2192.
  14. Kiyotoki S, Nishikawa J, Nagata N, et al. Exploration of the characteristics of chronotypes in upper gastrointestinal tract diseases: a multicenter study in Japan. Chronobiol Int. 2021 Apr;38(4):534-542.
  15. Han CH, Chung J. Late Chronotype is Associated with Adolescent Asthma: Assessment Using the Korean-Version MCTQ. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 26;17(9):3000.
  16. Kelly RM, Finn J, Healy U, et al. Greater social jetlag associates with higher HbA1c in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study. Sleep Med. 2020 Feb;66:1-9.
Updated by Iris A. Perez, MD
The last date of update April 2023